Reasons for the end of imperialism, decolonization and emergence of new Nation-states and its impact

Definition:

Decolonization is the process by which colonies become independent of the colonizing country.

Some take a broader look:

It means that to some extent, a movement began following WWI and gained momentum after WWII, where people around the world said that people have the right to govern themselves. However, many of the colonizing countries that lost control of governments maintained a presence in decolonize territories, often in the form of military.

Some question whether colonialism has ended:

Colonization takes many forms: from the literal appropriation of lands to cultural globalization, from political manipulation and armed intervention to modern versions of economic enslavement

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Reasons for the break-up of the Berlin wall

The Wall:

  • After WW2, two peace conferences at Yalta and Potsdam determined the fate of Germany’s territories. They split the defeated nation into four “allied occupation zones” in 1945: The eastern part of the country went to the Soviet Union, while the western part went to the United States, Great Britain and (eventually) France. Similarly Berlin which was entirely in East Germany was divided among the allies.

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Give reasons for the disintegration of USSR

Reasons:

Weakening of economy:

  • The Soviet Union had grown to a size large enough to the point where it became cumbersome to continue state planning. But state planners were unwilling to give autonomy at mid-managerial level. This resulted in failed economic policies (failure to respond timely to continuous changes), while thwarting innovation. Managers commonly fudged numbers to show that quotas and goals were being met.
  • The state-planned economic system did not provide sufficient incentives to encourage innovation and ambitious productivity.
  • High expenditure in defense due to arms race and neglecting other sectors led to rise in food prices and decline in wages.
  • The closed market economy and coercive policies further crippled the economy.

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Significance and fate of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 point agreement at the Versailles peace conference

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Woodrow depicted as a musician

Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points:

The 14 points are “war aims”(what they hoped to accomplish through a victory-for Woodrow it was ‘world peace’)  of US. It was meant to gain support for US’s involvement at home and support for Woodrow’s vision among allies. US was forced to issue the war-aims document as the Bolshevik party in Russia released secret documents that exposed the imperialistic designs of some European countries with which US was allied with. US joined the war in April 1917. It is also seen as a response to Lenin’s “Decree on Peace” shortly after the October revolution(1917) which proposed an immediate withdrawal of Russia from World War I and called for immediate end of the war.

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